While more sympathetic to Habermas's critique than the present study, Flood's essay makes a serious attempt at clarification of Habermas's position and treats Habermas's view of Marxism as "a sympathetically critical one from Marxists should learn, even as they attempt to answer it. His work deals with analysis of rule of law in modern politics, especially that of Germany. Abstract. To understand Habermas's mature positions, we must start with his Theory of Communicative Action (TCA), a two-volume critical study of the theories of rationality that informed the classical sociologies of Weber, Durkheim, Parsons, and neo-Marxist critical theory (esp. There were also several other Neo-Marxist theorists and theories, including economic determinism, George Luckac’s reification, Antonio Gramsci’s hegemony, Habermas and his communicative action and critical theory. The global intellectual development line of Habermas leads from Marx via neo-Marxism to Post-Marxism and a movement away from it, toward convergence and integration of the social action theory, the system theory and the symbolic interactionism theory. It grew out of the Institute of Social Research at the University of Frankfurt Germany.Neo Marxism is also known as critical theory where class divisions under capitalism is viewed as more important than gender or sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity. Lukács, Horkheimer, Adorno). The so-called Neo-Marxists of Frankfurt who tried to revise some ‘false conceptions' in Marxism, did not stop at deforming it but pushed the burning necessity of revolution to the corner. Habermas worked extensively on foundational theories of society and epistemology, during his association with the Frankfurt School, a school related to neo-Marxist social theory. The relation of Habermas to critical social theory, aka as critical theory, has had a crucial effect on the declining fortunes of this form of neo-Marxism.Marx famously rejects in principle theories, which merely to interpret, since it is necessary, in his view, to change the world. Neo -Marxism. Critical and Neo-Marxist Theory. Habermas, Honneth, Laclau & Mouffe, oh, Boltanski & Chiapello, Honneth & Fraser Redistribution or Recognition 2003, whatever ... Neo-Marxism is the attempt to salvage what can be salvaged from Marxist thought after the events of 1989-1991 showed socialism to be a complete failure as an economic, political, and moral system. The Frankfurt school has become one of the most important proponents of Neo Marxism. The Frankfurt School The Ideas of Jurgen Habermas Gramscis Hegemony Wallertsteins Historical Marxism Intellectual Roots Early critical theorists drew on Marx (especially concept of alienation) Also influenced by ideas of Hegel, Nietzsche, and Freud Emphasized link between macro-level processes such as culture and effects on individual psyche and consciousness Rational choice theory and game theory are also included in the analytical Marxism. Analytical Marxism further stresses the assumption of individual, egocentric rationality and methodological individualism. with Friedrich Engels] “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” Emancipation – class struggle as change/progress 3 Marxism and the historical roots of structuralism in IR Neo-Marxism Critical Theory 2 Karl Marx 1818- Most famous for Das Kapital (1867)and The Communist Manifesto (1848) [written in assoc. First, economic determinism was based on Marx’s focus on the economy. As for Marxism, as one of more important sources of his theoretical views, Neo-conflict theorist: Jurgen Habermas: Jurgen Habermas belongs to the second generation of the intellectuals of Frankfurt School.