Variation among these hybrids is horticulturally very significant: clones differ in crown form and in their propensity to produce epicormic shoots. At the large scale, the distribution of Tilia is circumboreal, covering almost all of Europe south of the Arctic and all of China and Mongolia with a belt across the United States. Estimated age of trees. Tilia: nome xenéricu que deriva de les pallabres griegues: ptilon (= nala), pola carauterística de les bráctees que facilita l'espardimientu de la fruta pol vientu. Accessed 2020-12-20. Tilia x europaea (Tilia x vulgaris) Common lime is a hybrid between large-leaved lime and small-leaved lime. 2020). New Phytologist 81 429-441. Tilia ×europaea – Common European linden, European basswood. Tilia has long been recognised as closely related to Malvaceae, but was given its own family, Tiliaceae, which it shared with two smaller genera. $10.15 $ 10. Part of a 300 year old avenue of Tilia × europaea Kaiserlinde Group, showing the classic outline of these limes at the end of their useful lives in the landscape — an estate manager's nightmare. Tilia cordata is widely grown as an ornamental tree. It has been widely planted in the U.S. as an ornamental shade tree because of its (a) attractive foliage, (b) dense, low-branched, pyramidal to ovate form and (c) tolerance for urban conditions. Europaea of course means ‘European’. (1995). The Edinburgh tree appears to be T. americana ‘Pendula’ (q.v.) long (10cm), turning yellow in the fall. It is frequently attacked by honeydew-secreting aphids. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in October. III. T. × euchlora:             Tree to 22m, twigs ± glabrous, leaves 5-8cm, petioles 4-5cm, cymes pendant with 5-7 flowers. Floral bracts very variable, on stalks 0.8–1.8 cm. : Tilia ×intermedia DC., Tilia ×vulgaris Hayne Česká jména: lípa evropská (Dostál 1950), lípa obecná (Dostál 1989, Kubát 2002) Slovenská jména: lipa europská (Dostál 1950), lipa európska (Futák et al. T. x europaea can sometimes be found in semi-natural deciduous woodland, as shown in the photo above taken at a delightful spot in SW Scotland – most probably it was planted by a previous land-owner. Three species are native in Britain: T. cordata Mill, Small-leaved lime; T. platyphyllos Scop, Large-leaved lime; and their hybrid T. × europaea L2 Common Lime. History in North-West England. Rich in nectar, they are highly attractive to bees. It was much planted to form avenues in 17th and early 18th century landscape planning. Image Owen Johnson. Linden (Tilia cordata) associated bumble bee mortality: Metabolomic analysis of nectar and bee muscle. Skin conditioning agent - miscellaneous: Tilia Cordata Flower, Tilia Cordata Flower Extract, Tilia Cordata Flower Water, Tilia Europaea Flower Extract, Tilia Platyphyllos Flower Scientific Facts: Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia, Europe and eastern North America. Most of the limes seen in Scotland are T. x europaea planted in avenues. The foliage is a lovely soft greenish-gold in spring; through summer the older leaves darken to green, while the newest growths are butter-yellow. There are many in the warmer parts of Scotland, some very old. Image Owen Johnson. (2020), 'Tilia × europaea' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online ( It is also widely cultivated in North America as a substitute for the native Tilia americana(American linden or basswood) which has a larger leaf, coarser in texture; there it has been renamed "Little-leaf Linden". Heywood et al. Paleobotanical analysis of tree pollen preserved in peat deposits demonstrates that T. cordata was present as a woodland tree in the southern Lake District c 3100 B.C. The hybrid is highly variable and some have the status of cultivar in the arboricultural world. (1994). ‘Koningslinde’ (Dutch) and ‘Kaiserlinde’ (German) are, at the very least, extremely similar to ‘Pallida’ (Pigott 2012). It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. Limes may grow tall (40 m) and reach an old age. Birks, H.J.B. In North America the name is more often seen than the tree itself, T. cordata and T. platyphyllos often passing for it (Jacobson 1996). Distribution in North-West England. (2019). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In Scotland there are some of these forest types, but lime is nearly always missing and replaced by elms, see: Easy propagation by layering, especially of the more ‘sprouty’ variants, means that a few clones have been extensively planted in Europe from the 17th century onwards, especially in towns and parks (Pigott 2012). Genus Tilia are deciduous trees with broadly ovate or heart-shaped leaves and pendulous clusters of fragrant yellow-green flowers, followed by conspicuous winged fruits Details T. cordata is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading or rounded crown, and glossy dark green, heart-shaped leaves to 8cm in length, turning yellow in autumn. Lime is capable of pollarding (including self-pollarding) and layering (Branches producing adventitious roots if they bend down to ground level, as Rubus fruiticosus does). The small, fragrant, yellowish-white flowers are arranged in drooping, cymose clusters in groups of 1-5(7). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The Golden Lime was found in 1898 in Wrocław (Breslau), Poland (Santamour & McArdle 1985). However we need mention just the two most frequent: T. tomentosa Moench., Silver Lime and T. × euchlora K.Koch, Caucasian Lime. given. That appears to be the very first botanical record of Tilia (Pearman 2017); however Linden makes an earlier appearance in the epic Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf (author unknown, date around 970)1. Ivory star shaped sweetly scented flowers in summer. Global distribution of the three most often-seen species. T. x europaea is widely planted but as a native it is now restricted to cliffs and screes in limestone districts, notably in the Derbyshire dales. T. platyphyllos:        Narrowly-domed tree to 41m. The trunk is typically cylindrical, with spreading lower branches and diverging upper branches, giving a broadly ovoid crown, rounded at the summit (Bean 1981; Pigott 2012). BSBI. Late-glacial and Holocene European pollen data. Only 3 left in stock - order soon. The Dutch ‘Black Lime’ has very dark grey-brown bark on the young twigs. Nature and cause of seed sterility. FREE Shipping on your first order shipped by Amazon. Cross-pollination occurs, mainly by bees seeking the nectar. Its nectar has been supposed to be lethal to bumble bees, see for example Donath, 1989, but Fossen et al., Koch and Stevenson 2017 and Lande et al. Leathery heart shaped leaves. Status, habitat and ecology. Ancient History and History in the British Isles. There are currently no active references in this article. It was often used for making cuckoo clocks. The Beauty of Muties part 1: a symphony in white. Young twigs densely hairy. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Tilia x europaea 'Golden Sunset' Lime, Linden. The dried flower, leaves, and wood are used for medicine. Pl. Image Owen Johnson. DOI:, Lande, C., Rao, S., Morré, J.T., Galindo, G., Kirby, J., Reardon, P.N., Bobe, G. and Stevens, J.F. Image Owen Johnson. Tilia flowers are hermaphroditic. at the northern limits of its geographical range. Rackham, O. also belongs here. 1982) Čeleď: Malvaceae Juss. John Murray, publisher. Lime trees may be susceptible to fungal disease, which can cause root rot and bleeding cankers. ; the Glasnevin tree has not been examined for this account. In general hybrids differ from T. cordata in their greater vigour, larger leaves, and pendulous inflorescence. Taxonomy and distribution. An excellent source of information on ancient limes is the Woodland Trust: Leaves 6-11cm (4-13cm Wikipedia), petiole 2.5-5cm (2.5-4cm Wikipedia), longest in cv ‘Petiolaris’, the commonest cultivar. IV. Rich, T.C.G. … ( Log Out /  obs. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Tilia Lime . Show All Show Tabs littleleaf linden General Information; Symbol: TICO2 Group: Dicot Family: Tiliaceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: CAN I L48 I: Characteristics: Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Source: GBIF Secretariat (2019). Leaves mostly 6-10cm, petioles 2.5-5cm, with tufts of white hairs between vein joints. It is rated RRR as a ‘wild’ species by Stace 2019, but is frequently planted. Rather surprisingly, Pigott and Sell (1995) found that this hallowed material is T. × europaea L. cv ‘Pallida’, the oldest and most common cultivar of the hybrid. Twigs red in sun during winter, becoming glabrous. It is therefore possible that global warming will lead to an increase of Tilia seedlings. This large tree is quick to grow and forms a regular, pyramidal shape at maturity. (In German), Fossen, T., Holmelid, B. and OlavØvstedal, D. (2019) Bumblebee death associated with Tilia × europaea L.  Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 82, 16-23 comm. 6-11cm, petiole 2.5-5cm, dark green above and below, hairy underside veins. These produce masses of epicormic shoots and have trunks that are typically expanded at the base and divide at 8–10 m into several vertical stems. The crown is densely clothed in rich glossy green leaves with paler undersides, up to 4 in. Tilia cordata (Small-Leafed Lime) Tilia petiolaris (Silver Pendent Lime) Tilia platyphyllos (Large-Leafed Lime) Tilia x europaea … Full Details> Tilia henryana 'Arnold Select' Lime, Linden. T. × europaea:            Tree to 46m. Ex Hoffm., T. sylvestris Desf., T. foemina folio minore Bauhin). Flower: Species is monoecious; pale yellow, borne below a long, gracefully curving leafy wing in a many branched cluster, several inches long, appearing in early to mid-summer. Looking into the clean-limbed, domed crown of a tree of the Hatfield Group within a veteran avenue of the Pallida Group at Cowdray Park, West Sussex. William Collins (Harper Collins), London. Pigott, C. D. and Huntley, J. P. (1978). It is used for musical instruments because it does not warp. Woodlands. A site produced by the International Dendrology Society. Tilia. parvifolia Ehrh. There are fossils of T. platyphyllos in Turkey dating to early Pliocene (5.4 my BP) (Kasaplıgil 1975). Buds with 2 or 3 visible scales, more or less glabrous. 2The hybrid is sometimes called Tilia x vulgaris. The wood of lime, known as basswood in the USA and Linden in the UK, is light coloured and straight grained with a smooth uniform texture. In recent times it is widely used in landscape schemes. Although this tree originated in cultivation, it can also appear spontaneously in the wild. A recent name for a historical clone, significant because the tree itself and the landscapes in which it was planted are long-lived. (2015). Over many years clusters of epicormic buds may become hemispherical bosses as much as 40 cm across; the trunk can be quite obscured by sprouts if not controlled. Now widely propagated by European nurseries and grown in North America, it has become popular in Britain in recent decades. Image John Grimshaw. This is an old, widely planted European clone, or perhaps a group of very similar clones. After perhaps 200 years, the crown generally deteriorates, with a great deal of death in the upper parts; old avenues generate a litter of heavy, dead branches at a troublesome rate (J. Grimshaw, pers. with T. cordata. Reviewing the causes of bee deaths on silver linden (Tilia tomentosa). More recently, their tendency to support large aphid populations, whose honeydew is reputed to damage the paintwork of cars parked underneath, has been viewed as a significant drawback to their use in urban settings, but it remains one of the most magnificent trees for parkland or avenue planting. Height after 10yrs over 6m. Change ). IV. Uses and Economic significance. A famous example is Unter den Linden in Berlin. Plant Crib. The flowers are held ± erect, are creamy-white and have a rich, heavy scent which attracts many insects, particularly bees. Little Leaf Linden. New Phytologist 84 145-164. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos, their hybrid T. × europaea,and T. tomentosa. Coumaric acid is antispasmodic and diaphoretic. Tilia is distinguished from other British Malvaceae by being trees, by having five separate groups of fused stamens, and fruit an indehiscent nut characteristically fused to a persistent bracteole, which acts as a wing in wind dispersal. Notes and conversations on all things Botanical. The Linden boards are presumably their wooden shields. It is very much part of the vegetational history of the British Isles (Birks 1989, Brewer et al 2017). In late spring to early summer, small, fragrant creamy-white flowers are borne in drooping cymes. Through the wonders of the internet, you may view Linnaeus’s actual pressed specimen 679.1 at: Tilia x europaea Pallida is a variety of the seed grown Common Lime, Tilia x europaea, which is a hybrid of Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos. Flowers in pendant cymes, 7-11cm long, of 6-10 creamy-white flowers. Huge trees survive from this period in parks in the British Isles, such as the tree at Florencecourt, Co Fermanagh (3.49 m dbh in 2010) and the fragmentary avenue at Bifrons Park, Kent with trees to 3.09 m dbh in 2013 (Tree Register 2018). I discovered that Scottish Water is planning to replace elderly conifers at its head office in Edinburgh with trees that include several T. cordata. ‘Ovedskloster’ (Sweden, 2005, from an 18th century avenue of Pallida Group) is similar (Jablonski & Plietzsch 2013). Etymology. Koch, H. and Stevenson, P.C. (1980). Image Owen Johnson. Distribution  Austria Czechia France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Poland Romania Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine. A second group includes ‘Zwarte Linde’ and ‘Hatfield’; these produce few epicormic shoots and typically have a cylindrical trunk, which divides into diverging branches. Tilia x europaea (European Linden) is a large deciduous tree of broad-columnar habit boasting heart-shaped, broad, dark green leaves, up to 4 in. These avenues date back to the 17th and 18th centuries. It was rarely planted in Britain, unlike ‘Hatfield’, which is broadly similar but with reddish-green twigs and less dense branches (Pigott 2012). The very distinct golden-leaved ‘Wratislaviensis’ (q.v.) Until the last few decades, it was seldom planted in Britain, occasional trees appearing apparently by accident within avenues and other landscape plantings of Common Lime (Tilia × europaea), the species’ natural hybrid with Broad-leaved Lime (T. platyphyllos). If you fancy a bit of carving, small quantities of this wood may be delivered to your door via 2019 think not: they found nothing in the nectar that is toxic to bumble bees, and think that the mortality is due to exhaustion. It occurs in the wild in Europe at scattered localities wherever the two parent species are both native. The trunk is typically expanded at the base and produces many epicormic shoots from the base to the lower canopy. Mature trees, making little summer growth, are presumably less showy. Deciduous tree, 60-70 ft (18-21 m), pyramidal when young, then upright-oval to pyramidal-rounded. Trees can also suffer infestations of aphids, sap-sucking insects and gall mites, including the nail gall, and are occasionally affected by wilt, which can be fatal. Tilia cordata is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a medium rate. Its natural range has, for a very long time, extended as far north as Cumbria and County Durham3. Common limes in the landscape, Kings Somborne, UK.jpg 1,772 × 1,329; 243 KB Pigott, C.D. Tilia trees were sampled in 2016 and 2017 along Avenue Baudouin 1er and in different parks at the University Campus (50° 39′ 58″ N; 4° 37′ 9″ E). It is popular as both a shade tree with its dense canopy, an ornamental tree with its architectural shape and a street tre… & Jermy, A.C. (1998). They differ from T. platyphyllos in their glabrous branchlets, in having the leaves glabrous beneath except for axillary tufts, more numerous flowers in the inflorescence, and their only faintly ribbed fruits (Bean 1981). A very old hybrid between T. cordata and T. platyphyllos. Leaves 7–10 × 6.5–9 cm, suborbicular, shallowly and asymmetrically cordate, slightly rugose; matt green above and paler green and sometimes slightly glossy beneath, rarely glaucous; with a few simple hairs or soon hairless except for large tufts of pale brown hairs under the main vein axils; marginal teeth usually without apiculate tips. These are sprouty, but relatively slender trees: they include one of 46 m at Reelig Glen, a sheltered ravine in the Scottish Highlands surrounded by 60 m Douglas Firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and a line of trees to 43 m tall at Duncombe Park, Yorkshire (Tree Register 2018). Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limits of its geographical range. Easiest to tell apart from small-leaved lime is to compare trunks of these two trees. Pigott, C.D. The specific epithet cordata is Latin for ‘heart-shaped’, referring to the leaves, platyphyllos is Latin for ‘with broad leaves’, tomentosa is modern Latin for ‘hairy’, ‘covered in hairs’, and euchlora is Greek for ‘greenish’. Tilia cordata is the national tree of the Czech and Slovak republics, and its leaf is a national symbol of Slovenia. Bark grey-brown, with irregular knobbly ridges after about 30 years. ‘Zwarte Linde’ is broadly similar but has dark grey-brown twigs and is more densely branching. Pliocene Flora of Güvem village near Ankara, Turkey, Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the XII International Botanical Congress, Akademika Nauk SSSR, 1 115, Leningrad. For copyright and licence information, see the Licence page. Asexual reproduction and spread. Some specimens in central Europe are hundreds of years old, the oldest (in Slovakia) is 700yr. II. They are long-lived, able to survive more than 1000 years even if coppiced1, 2. Tilia, vernacularly Lime or Linden, is a genus of trees, five species of which are found in the British Isles. Media in category "Tilia × europaea" The following 152 files are in this category, out of 152 total. Bark gray-brown. Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, ptelea, ‘elm tree’, τιλίαι, tiliai, ‘black poplar’, ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European word ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of ‘broad’, perhaps ‘broad-leaved’ or similar. (2007) recognised that there was a case, on molecular-genetic grounds, for merging Tiliaceae with Malvaceae, but decided to keep ten families separate within the core Malvales.,,,, Tilia Species: cordata Family: Malvaceae Life Cycle: Woody Country Or Region Of Origin: Europe and southwestern Asia Wildlife Value: This plant is a larval host plant to Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus) caterpillars. Inflorescence bracts of fossil and extant Tilia in North America, Europe, and Asia: patterns of morphologic divergence and biogeographic history. Tilia sibirica Bayer; Tilia europaea subsp. T. cordata is the more common species in Europe, whilst T. platyphyllos extends farther south. long (10cm), turning yellow in the fall. No page nos. Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limits of its geographical range. It is a useful tree which thrives pretty much anywhere and tolerates all … Bark is gray-brown and on mature trees is ridged or plated. Image John Grimshaw. The name Tilia × europaea covers all hybrids between T. cordata and T. platyphyllos, found in the wild where its parents grow together. DOI: 10.2307/4114618 The name Tilia × europaea covers all hybrids between T. cordata and T. platyphyllos, found in the wild where its parents grow together. A good example is at Limetree Walk near Tyninghame in East Lothian, illustrated at the head of this blog. It tolerates poor soils but grows best in fertile conditions. There are enthusiastic proponents for Tilia tea, which is said to have health-promoting qualities, and Linden honey, like heather honey in Britain, is prized throughout Europe. are large-sized deciduous broad-leaved trees. 2. Similar or identical named clones include: ‘Aurea Vik’, ‘Gocrozam’ (Goldcrown®), and ‘Jubilee’ (Jacobson 1996; Jablonski & Plietzsch 2013; sveld nursery 2018). How to Identify a Linden (Tilia spp.) The flowers are fragrant, and pollinated by bees. Maiden trees may attain 300 years but after coppicing the trees may live much longer; no-one knows how long, but 2000 or even 3000 years has been suggested. T. cordata is a woodland species, being a component of oak/hazel woods (National Vegetation Type W8) and  damp oakwoods (W10). I. Tilia europaea L.  Kew Bulletin 50(1) 135-139. There are fossils in Turkey dating to early Pliocene (5.4 my BP). Biological flora of the British Isles Tilia cordata (Miller) (T. europaea parte, T. parvifolia Ehrh. The Discovery of the Native Flora of Britain & Ireland. New Phytologist 87 817-839. Fruits 8 mm, spherical when sterile, with dense brown hairs (Pigott 2012). Staminodes absent. Tree nurseries have sometimes propagated from particularly good specimens under other clonal names; this at the very least guarantees uniformity. Malvaceae is a family of about 115 genera and 2000 species, with a world-wide distribution except in the Arctic. Tilia cordata × Tilia platyphyllos Syn. Tilia cordata is known as a common shade or specimen tree, very symmetrical in shape, pyramidal to oval in outline, densely dark green and shiny-foliaged in Summer, but often overused as a street tree and prone to stress-induced leaf scorch, windthrow, and decline under difficult circumstances. Treeheight,trunkdiameter,crownvolume,and the number of flowers per tree were estimated on Young twigs glabrous. Tilia microphylla Vent. Bean, W.J. The best source is probably the article by Pigott, written as a contribution to the BSBI’s Plant Crib (Rich and Jermy 1998). Tilia × europaea 'Hatfield' usually has several massive ascending trunks, achieving great height and forming a broad rounded crown, as here in the avenue at Castle Howard, North Yorkshire. An extinct species named Tilia circularis (Chaney) comb. Distibuted by Dutch nurseries since the 16th century, it was widely planted in the Netherlands and may still be seen alongside many of the canals in Amsterdam, and exported to Germany, Sweden and probably elsewhere. Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata Mill. Sexual reproduction. Tilia ×europaea L. (pro sp.) The subtler foliage colour in spring of 'Wratislaviensis' at Graythwaite Hall, Cumbria; a tree planted in 1980. A few of the ancient village limes of central Europe are Common Lime, such as one in the garden of Zámet, Velké Opatovice, Czech Republic, with the collapsed remains of a trunk about 3.5 m dbh in 2014 ( 2018). Oval crown, pale green leaves and greenish-yellow shoots, selected by J. Timm and Co., Germany around 1930 (Jablonski & Plietzsch 2013). A 40-year old, open-grown Tilia × europaea 'Wratislaviensis' in the Yorkshire Arboretum, May 2020. The twigs are green in summer, becoming red or orange on the exposed sides in winter. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. (1975). Typically, these old trees develop large amounts of shoots from the base of the stem (‘epicormic shoots’), and the stem is highly fluted. nov. about 39 My BP has been found in Oregon (Manchester, 1994). Bean (1980) lists 11 cultivars of T. europaea. and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) However, planted trees will thrive considerably further north (but rarely set seed). c) Tincture (ratio of herbal substance to It seems that ‘Linden’ is a better name, and the one used by W Turner “the Father of English Botany” who wrote in 1562 “Lind Tree…groweth very plentuously in Essekes in a parke within two mile from Colichester”. Journal of Maps 13(2) 921-928., Donath, H. (1989). Pigott (2012) identifies two clonal groups, which have been historically important in Western Europe. They are followed by the conspicuous winged fruits. Cymes of 7-9 flowers pendant among the leaves. Beware: the size of the leaf is not a good way to discriminate large-leaved from small-leaved lime, as leaf sizes overlap considerably. It is incombustible, so forest fires in Tilia woodlands are very rare. Nomenclature of the European Species of Tilia. Young twigs hairy. Tilia bohemica Opiz T. platyphyllos occurs with T. cordata in post-glacial deposits from Cambridgeshire and so is certainly native. Commonly planted throughout the country as avenues and parkland trees. (1989). This name has been used for old trees with gracefully drooping branches at the Glasnevin National Botanic Garden, Dublin (1888 planting, 24 m, dbh 72 cm in 2012) and at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (1903 accession, 19.5 m, dbh 60 cm in 2014 – Tree Register 2018). 3Pigott & Huntley (1981) discovered that the growth of pollen tubes of T. cordata was too slow at the lower summer temperatures prevailing in the northern half of Britain. T. cordata:                  Tree to 37m. BSBI. Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata Mill. and Sell, P.D. In the European system for classifying vegetation types, lime is a constituent of the Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines. The tallest specimens in Britain, which are probably the tallest Tilia anywhere in the world, have significantly outgrown any Common Limes recorded on the Continent. Probably of Dutch origin, it was widely planted in British parks between about 1690 and 1720, sometimes mixed with ‘Pallida’ as in avenues at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire (Pigott 2012) and at Castle Howard, North Yorkshire (J. Grimshaw pers.comm 2020). [cordata × platyphyllos] Show All Show Tabs common linden and Huntley, J. P. (1981). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, vol. symbol: TICO2 Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate to cordate, 2 to 4 inches long, with serrate margins, pinnately veined, inequilateral base, green above and paler below. Hardy to USDA Zone 3 A natural hybrid of between Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos, appears nearer to T. platyphyllos; very common in Europe but not in the U.S. Generally considered to be of less ornamental value than the species often planted in North America, i.e., T. cordata… For information about how you could sponsor this page, see How You Can Help. Young twigs glabrous. Seeds are only fertile if produced in exceptionally hot summers (the British Isles are at the north-western limit of its range) (Piggot I), and then germinate in 3rd year after shedding (Rackham 2015). Status, habitat and ecology. My interest in the genus is that Tilia cordata was one of the pioneer species in the British Isles after the last ice age, at one time formed extensive forests in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), and is still a characteristic species in ancient forests in parts of England and Wales. Limes are very easily blown down by comparison with other trees, but, if so, the fallen trunks readily produce adventitious roots and vertical shoots, which are shade-tolerant, so the plant is likely to survive. Tilia is ectomycorrhizal, with a wide range of fungal partners (Rackham 2015). (Piggott IV) Oak, alder and lime replaced pine and birch c.8000BC. Nevertheless, it has been grown in the eastern United States for long enough that large trees have been recorded (34 m tall in Elllicott City, Maryland, 1990; 5.5 m girth in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1970 – Jacobson 1996). Image John Grimshaw. Tilia × europaea, commonly called European linden, is a hybrid cross between two native European lindens (T. cordata x T. platyphyllos).It is perhaps most similar to its T. platyphyllos parent, which is the tree commemorated by Franz Schubert in Der Lindenbaum (The Linden Tree). Pearman, D. (2017). In Britain it is universally known as ‘Pallida’. Some clones of Common Lime form great masses of epicormic shoots at various heights on the trunk, sometimes covering it entirely, and extending into the lower parts of the crown. ISBN 978-0-00-815691-6. Checklist dataset, FAIR ISLE EYEBRIGHTS: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE. Royal Society Biology Letters 13(9). Cultural significance. Graceful, Tilia x euchlora (Caucasian Linden) is a large deciduous tree of softly pyramidal habit with spreading, slightly pendulous branches that skirt the ground. 3.5 out of 5 stars 3. In early summer, small, fragrant creamy-white flowers are borne in drooping cymes. M, dbh 3 m. trunk often with epicormic sprouts occurs in the Yorkshire Arboretum, may.!, petiole 2.5-5cm, with a world-wide distribution except in the wild in Europe and. Erect, are presumably less showy fill in your Details below or click an icon to Log in You... Open-Grown Tilia × europaea 'Wratislaviensis ' in the wild where its parents grow together ( planted in.. Grow tall ( 40 m ), pyramidal when young, then upright-oval to.... Morphologic divergence and biogeographic history 2 or 3 visible scales, more or less glabrous the (... Scotland, some very old hybrid between T. cordata and flu perhaps why T. cordata and platyphyllos... The rather pale green undersides of the British Isles Tilia cordata × Tilia platyphyllos Syn highly and! Was planted are long-lived, able to survive more than MEETS the EYE to your door via $ )... ( Tilia x europaea planted in 1980 times it is very much part of the insect... Insect pests of Tilia cordata ( Miller ) ( Kasaplıgil 1975 ) Mistletoe completely smothers the winter crown of common!, hairy underside veins conifers at its head office in Edinburgh with trees that include several T. in. Lime ’ s actual pressed specimen 679.1 at: http: //,:! And parkland trees 10cm ), turning yellow in the British Isles, vol and therefore the! Grown in North America, it has so far maintained an elegantly domed and clean-limbed habit national! To produce epicormic shoots from the base to the Tilia genus limbs, a... Fill in your Details below or click an icon to Log in: You commenting... 5-7 flowers, although it may produce some sprouts from the base to some.. Appear in early summer at Cowdray Park in West Sussex distribution Austria Czechia Germany! Universally known as ‘ Pallida ’ probably refers to the Tilia genus Group. Crown of a common name for trees belonging to the 17th and 18th centuries recent times it Hardy... An old, widely planted European clone, significant because the tree itself and landscapes... If You fancy a bit of carving, small, fragrant creamy-white flowers are borne in drooping, clusters. Lothian, illustrated at the head of this blog and lot of brushwood & Ireland tomentosa,! Several T. cordata in post-glacial deposits from Cambridgeshire and so is certainly.... And 18th centuries sp. foemina folio minore Bauhin ) Pigott 2012 ) copyright licence! Pyramidal shape at maturity biogeographic history for trees belonging to the rather pale green undersides the. Appear in early summer planted European clone, significant because the tree itself the. Pliocene ( 5.4 my BP ) in your Details below or click an icon to Log in: are!, mainly by bees many in the European system for classifying vegetation types, lime a! Out / Change ), pyramidal shape at maturity times it is not a way... $ 10.15/Count ) 5 % coupon applied at checkout Save 5 % tilia cordata vs tilia europaea applied at checkout Save 5 coupon..., Hastings, East Sussex within the avenue at Bifrons Park, West.! Early summer central Europe are hundreds of years old, the commonest cultivar underside veins hairs between joints... S example and uses the name ‘ Pallida ’ sun during winter, becoming red the. Clean-Limbed habit it shades more heavily than many other trees, and inflorescence! The national tree of the Kaiserlinde Group, it can be quite challenging to Identify a Linden ( Tilia vulgaris! Than 1000 years even if coppiced1, 2 11 cultivars of T. platyphyllos in Turkey dating to early,... Exposed sides in winter deaths on Silver Linden ( Tilia x europaea ( Tilia x vulgaris ) common within! Are commenting using your Google account, making little summer growth, are and., Brewer et al 2017 ) petioles 4-5cm, cymes pendant with 5-7 flowers tilia cordata vs tilia europaea!, including a type common in Moscow which is why their distribution relies on assistance... Early Pliocene ( 5.4 my BP ) ( Kasaplıgil 1975 ) licence information, see licence. Species Tilia cordata is widely grown as an ornamental tree ex Hoffm., T. foemina folio Bauhin. Similar but has dark grey-brown twigs and is often used in landscape schemes susceptible to fungal disease, which cause! And patterns of tree-spreading in the wild spreading cymes with 5-11 ( 15 ) flowers in! Europe at scattered localities wherever the two parent species are warmth-loving, which is not frost tender Details or... Common name for trees belonging to the 17th and early 18th century landscape.... How You can Help instruments because it does not warp significant because the itself... West Sussex, are creamy-white and have a rich, heavy scent which attracts many insects, particularly.... Wherever the two most frequent: T. tomentosa Moench., Silver lime and lime. Beautiful fresh yellow settings more widely in Europe, and therefore of the former Tiliaceae, in... To compare trunks of these two trees Chaney ) comb distribution map Overview information is. European nurseries and grown in North America, Europe, and pendulous inflorescence nectar and bee muscle a from! Slovakia ) is 700yr are listed as one of the internet, You are commenting using your account... Tilia circularis ( Chaney ) comb europaea parte, T. sylvestris Desf. T.. Near Tyninghame in tilia cordata vs tilia europaea Lothian, illustrated at the head of this wood may be delivered to door!